But these are not normal times. It is August in Paris.
This is the period when most Parisians escape the city for their month-long annual vacations. And the capital of the baguette – home to more than 1,000 bakeries and patisseries — can feel like a boulangerie desert.
In the city’s 15th arrondissement, what is usually a five-minute mission required a 15- or, man Dieu, 20-minute trip in the summer heat for the past week — at least for this correspondent, an untrained baguette hunter. Three out of seven bakeries in the neighborhood were already closed, with more planning to close in the coming days.
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The government has long tried to avoid such a predicament. With bread considered critical to the capital, bakers have faced restrictions dating back to the 1790s when they could close their shops. Only since 2015, when the rules were finally relaxed, have all Parisian bakers been free to join the August exodus.
There are still those who remain. Being able to produce bread at the hottest time of the year is a source of pride, said baker Adriano Farano. But he acknowledged that this summer feels tougher than in the past.
“We have rising wheat prices, rising energy prices and of course rising fuel prices,” he said.
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Paris has also had a summer of extreme heat. When bakers are working with 450-degree ovens and no air conditioning during a heat wave, when they have to race to stay in front of their melting butter, when they’re trying to avoid soggy baguettes and “thready bread disease,” it’s not hard. to see why they might decide to head for the coast or the mountains.
This week at the Frédéric Comyn bakery, recently awarded the capital’s best baguette, black shutters were pulled down behind the sign proclaiming: “Official supplier of the Élysée” presidential palace. There was no indication when the bakery would reopen. (Many French government officials will not return to the capital until August 24.)
A few hundred meters down the road, a competitor had stuck a picture of a beach umbrella with dangling stars on the front door. “Happy Holidays,” a sign greeted those left behind.
In France, where bread shortages partly led to the storming of the Bastille and the end of the monarchy, bread has assumed a special status as both a national symbol and a strictly regulated industry. To avoid famine in the capital, or another revolution, the French government decided in 1798 that the availability of bread had to be guaranteed.
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In its most modern form, that decree was reflected in the requirement that half of all Parisian bakers be open in July, the other half in August, evenly distributed across the capital. Bakers who went on vacation were required by law to put up signs directing people to the nearest open options. Violators risked fines of 11 euros a day.
Although the average daily diet of bread has dropped from 800 grams in 1875 to around 80 grams, bakeries are still deeply rooted in the country’s culture. The TV show “France’s best bakery”, in its ninth season, attracts millions of viewers. During lockdowns due to the coronavirus pandemic, boulangeries were considered essential businesses, and a trip to the bakery was an approved activity.
But France is also a country with a strong labor rights movement and reverence for holidays. And in 2014, as part of a law designed to simplify corporate practices, the government scrapped duty requirements for bakers.
Sylvie Debellemaniere, who sells dozens of different artisan breads, closed her shop on Friday for the rest of the month. She said it was largely a financial decision. Rising costs had already reduced her profit margins, forcing her to raise the price of her baguettes from €1.20 to €1.30. And in August, she said, bakeries outside the prime tourist spots can’t count on much of a customer base.
“A lot of people haven’t been on holiday for two years because of covid,” she said. “Everyone wants to leave. All the customers are tired of Paris.”
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Like most Parisian bakeries, her shop – Boulangerie De Belles Manières – is not air-conditioned. She worked there through several heat waves this summer, tending to the hot ovens as temperatures outside soared above 100 degrees Fahrenheit. She found that wearing looser clothes helped, and she tried to drink more water. But she said that perhaps the most effective coping mechanism was psychological.
“There’s no point in ruminating all day,” she said. “I tell myself it’s cold—and it works.”
The summer heat is not only unpleasant. It can mess with the chemistry of baking.
“Butter is very, very sensitive to heat,” said William Boutin, 37, a pastry instructor at La Cuisine Paris, who had spent the morning teaching students the art of the croissant and still had some flour on his cheeks. French butter can begin to melt at 82 degrees — far below the temperatures the capital has seen recently.
Heat also affects the dough, accelerating the rise. If the heat speeds up the rising process too much, breads may lose their desired texture, become denser, or they may develop undesirable flavors. Quick-rising dough is also more difficult to shape, Boutin said.
For some confectionery manufacturers and bakeries, this has led to difficult choices.
“Some of them in Paris decided not to sell — and not make — viennoiserie” during the heat waves, Boutin said, referring to products such as croissants and pains au chocolat. “If you don’t have a good air conditioner, you have to speed up your work.”
Other bakers have hoped that by working harder and faster they could outwit the heat. They have experimented with reducing the water and yeast in the dough and shortening the kneading and resting phases.
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They have been researching how to avoid “thready bread disease” – a bacterial contamination partly linked to heat waves, characterized by the bread giving off “a sour smell of rotten fruit,” according to French baking magazine La Toque, which devoted a series of articles on the difficult relationship between bread and heat waves.
And still, some bakers were disappointed to find that baked bread sitting in the heat and humidity became too soft by mid-afternoon.
Farano said customization is key.
He does not use butter in his bread, which allows him to escape some of the problems that have hampered colleagues.
His Pane Vivo bakeries produce natural sourdough breads from an ancient variety of wheat and have found a growing fan base among Parisians looking for a healthier alternative to the dominant white baguette. Some of his breads include Corsican herbs, others are studded with dried figs or dark chocolate.
“Our customers, once they start eating this bread, they can’t go back,” he said, as a steady stream of customers arrived, many of them visibly excited to find the store open.
Georges Sidéris, 63, said he had little hope when he set out on a quest to find his favorite breads on Thursday. “I told myself, ‘I’ll give it a shot, you never know,'” he said.
But even in August in Paris, his mission was successful. Sidéris bought a “Livia” with olives and rosemary and a “Figata” with dried figs. He smiled broadly as he held the loaves tightly.